The Immunomodulatory Drug Glatiramer Acetate is Also an Effective Antimicrobial Agent that Kills Gram-negative Bacteria

Classic drug development strategies have failed to meet the urgent clinical needs in treating infections with Gram-negative bacteria. Repurposing drugs can lead to timely availability of new antibiotics, accelerated by existing safety profiles. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a widely used and safe formulation for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Structure of the human MHC-I peptide-loading complex

The peptide-loading complex (PLC) is a transient, multisubunit membrane complex in the endoplasmic reticulum that is essential for establishing a hierarchical immune response. The PLC coordinates peptide translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum with loading and editing of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules.

Acidic Environment Induces Dimerization and Ligand Binding Site Collapse in the Vps10p Domain of Article Acidic Environment Induces Dimerization and Ligand Binding Site Collapse in the Vps10p Domain of Sortilin

Sortilin is a neuronal receptor involved in transmembrane signaling, endocytosis, and intracellular sorting of proteins. It cycles through a number of cellular compartments where it encounters various acidic conditions. The crystal structure of the sortilin ectodomain has previously been determined at neutral pH. Here, we present the 3.5-Å resolution crystal structure of sortilin at pH 5.5, which represents an environment similar to that of late endosomes, where ligands are released.

Pellet-free isolation of human and bovine milk extracellular vesicles by size-exclusion chromatography.

Studies have suggested that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EV) in human and bovine milk carry immune modulatory properties which could provide beneficial health effects to infants. In order to assess the possible health effects of milk EV, it is essential to use isolates of high purity from other more abundant milk structures with well-documented bioactive properties.