Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) of purified macromolecular complexes is now providing 3D-structures at near-atomic resolution (Kühlbrandt, 2014). Cryo-EM can tolerate heterogeneous specimens, however, high-resolution efforts demand highly optimized samples.
Classic drug development strategies have failed to meet the urgent clinical needs in treating infections with Gram-negative bacteria. Repurposing drugs can lead to timely availability of new antibiotics, accelerated by existing safety profiles. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a widely used and safe formulation for treatment of multiple sclerosis.
The peptide-loading complex (PLC) is a transient, multisubunit membrane complex in the endoplasmic reticulum that is essential for establishing a hierarchical immune response. The PLC coordinates peptide translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum with loading and editing of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules.
Sortilin is a neuronal receptor involved in transmembrane signaling, endocytosis, and intracellular sorting of proteins. It cycles through a number of cellular compartments where it encounters various acidic conditions. The crystal structure of the sortilin ectodomain has previously been determined at neutral pH. Here, we present the 3.5-Å resolution crystal structure of sortilin at pH 5.5, which represents an environment similar to that of late endosomes, where ligands are released.
Studies have suggested that nanoscale extracellular vesicles (EV) in human and bovine milk carry immune modulatory properties which could provide beneficial health effects to infants. In order to assess the possible health effects of milk EV, it is essential to use isolates of high purity from other more abundant milk structures with well-documented bioactive properties.
NADPH/NADP+ (the reduced form of NADP+/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) homeostasis is critical for countering oxidative stress in cells. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (TH), a membrane enzyme present in both bacteria and mitochondria, couples the proton motive force to the generation of NADPH. We present the 2.8 Å crystal structure of the transmembrane proton channel domain of TH from Thermus thermophilus and the 6.9 Å crystal structure of the entire enzyme (holo-TH).
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) exporters are ubiquitously found in all kingdoms of life and their members play significant roles in mediating drug pharmacokinetics and multidrug resistance in the clinic. Here, we used single particle electron microscopy (EM) to delineate the entire conformational spectrum of two homologous ABC exporters (bacterial MsbA and mammalian P-glycoprotein) and the influence of nucleotide and substrate binding.
The AAA+ family ATPase TRIP13 is a key regulator of meiotic recombination and the spindle assembly checkpoint, acting on signaling proteins of the conserved HORMA domain family. Here we present the structure of the Caenorhabditis elegans TRIP13 ortholog PCH-2, revealing a new family of AAA+ ATPase protein remodelers.